2013 - Position Statement on Civil Marriage and Civil Rights

The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) endorses full local, state, and federal recognition of same-sex and same-gender civil marriage with all the rights, benefits, and responsibilities it confers.

APsaA opposes discrimination in the right to access the institution of civil marriage based on actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression.

APsaA opposes the invalidation of marriages involving one or more transgender individuals, as well as the invalidation of any marriage based on the actual or perceived sex of the individuals involved, or whether the sex or gender identity of either one may have appeared different in the past or may change in the future.

Civil marriage confers important social, legal, and psychological benefits. Limitations on access to marriage and the invalidation of marriages unjustly deprive same-sex and same-gender couples and their families of these benefits. Additionally, these limitations and invalidations unjustly expose these couples and their families to harassment, discrimination, and violence.

References

Amato, P. (2001).  Children of divorce in the 1990's: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370.

Amato, P. & Keith, B. (1991).  Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis.  Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26-46.

 

Badgett, M. V. L. (2011), Social Inclusion and the Value of Marriage Equality in Massachusetts and the Netherlands. Journal of Social Issues, 67: 316–334. 

Chan, R., Ratboy, B, & Patterson, C. (1998).  Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers.  Child Development, 69, 443-457.

 

DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization.  In G. Herek, Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay issues, Vol. 4. (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

Fingerhut, A., Riggle, E., & Rostosky, S. (2011).  Same-sex marriage: The social and psychological implications of policy and debates.  Journal of Social Issues, 67/2, 225—241.

Green, R. (2004). Risk and resilience in lesbian and gay couples.  Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 290-292.

 

Greenan, D. & Tunnell, G. (2003).  Couple therapy with gay men.  New York: Guildford Press.

 

Herdt, G. & Kertzer, R. (2006).  I do but I can't:  The impact of marriage denial on the mental health and sexual citizenship of lesbians and gay men in the United States.  Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 3, 33-49.

 

Herek, G. (2011).  Anti-equality marriage amendments and sexual stigma.  Journal of Social Issues, 67/2, 413—426.

 

Herek, G. (2006).  Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective. American Psychologist, 61, 607-621.

Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W., & Jones, B. (2008). Is there something unique about marriage? The relative impact of marital status, relationship quality, and network social support on ambulatory blood pressure and mental health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(2), 239-244.

 

Kamp Dush, C., & Amato, P. ( 2005). Consequences of relationship status and quality for subjective well-being. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships22, 607– 627.

 

Kertzner, R. M. (2012). A Mental Health Research Perspective on Marital Rights and Civil Marriage for Lesbians and Gay Men. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 16(2), 136–145.

 

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. & Newton, T.  (2001).  Marriage and health.  Psychological Bulletin, 127, 472-503.

Kim, H. & McKenry, M.  (2002). The relationship between marriage and psychological well-being.  Journal of Family Issues, 23, 885-911.

 

Lannutti, P. J. (2007). The influence of same-sex marriage on the understanding of same-sex relationships.Journal of Homosexuality, 53(3), 135-151.

 

Maisel, N. & Fingerhut, A. (2011).  California’s ban on same-sex marriage: The campaign and its effects on gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals.  Journal of Social Issues, 67/2, 242-263.

 

Meyer, I.  (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence.  Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.

 

Oswald, R. F., Goldberg, A., Kuvalanka, K., & Clausell, E. ( 2008). Structural and moral commitment among same-sex couples: Relationship duration, religiosity, and parental status. Journal of Family Psychology22, 411– 419.

 

Riggle, Ellen D. B., Rotosky, Sharon S., Horne, Sharon G. (2010) Psychological distress, well-being, and legal recognition in same-sex couple relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 24(1), Feb 2010, 82-86.

Van Eeden-Moorefield, B., Martell, C. R., Williams, M. and Preston, M. (2011), Same-Sex Relationships and Dissolution: The Connection Between Heteronormativity and Homonormativity. Family Relations, 60: 562–571.

Waite, L. & Gallagher, M.  (2000). The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially.  New York: Doubleday.

 

Wienke, C., & Hill, G. J. (2009). Does the “Marriage Benefit” Extend to Partners in Gay and Lesbian Relationships? Evidence From a Random Sample of Sexually Active Adults. Journal of Family Issues, 30(2), 259–289.

 

Williams, K.  (2003). Has the future of marriage arrived? A contemporary examination of gender, marriage, and psychological well-being.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 470-487.

 

Adopted January 2013. This position statement updates and replaces APsaA's May 1997 position statement on marriage.